STOP. Before continuing, click here for important Internet security information about browsing this site.
If a web address is not clickable, copy and paste it into the address bar of a new tab.
Try to switch to using https://github.com/pinotes/pinotes.github.io if you find yourself visiting this site regularly.
News & Analysis > All
News & analysis from Proletarian Internationalist Notes—news, reviews and analysis from a global perspective
Iran signals its support for the two-state solution and Palestinian diplomacy
October 27, 2016
To preface this discussion about Iran and Palestine, this writer has never claimed to have privileged insight on Palestine. After indicating this numerous times, it is hard to make it any clearer. Maybe one can talk about polls better than a lot of others do, for example, but when you have to talk about polls conducted by Palestinians that is one clue about the extent of intimacy being claimed with the details on the ground. Nor does the writing here reflect access to the kind of intelligence even the Secretariat of State of the Roman Curia might have without having spies, apart from “open-source intelligence.” Nobody here has ever claimed to be Palestinian, and in saying that, that is certainly not to say a Palestinian website couldn’t arise with its own articles saying similar things.
For that matter, this writer doesn’t mind anyone’s not taking this writing too seriously. There are countless writers talking about Palestine in the English language, who talk ignorantly or who are part of the problem, not the solution.
Even some of those who have been in the Middle East as a political tourist or in some other capacity, but haven’t been back for years, may easily say things that are wrong theoretically or analytically, not just factually – though not because their grasp of science would be improved by being in a certain part of the world longer. And they may bring their own, special contribution to problems.
We are not claiming to have ever stepped foot in Palestine, Iran, Saudi Arabia, or any other Middle East country. However, there is a sense in which we are influenced by both Iranian and Saudi diplomacy no more or less than anyone else might be who is interested in global or Middle East politics. Those who aren’t attached to a particular nation may be uniquely positioned, able and willing to say things others might not be. This partly explains why this website has both critical and friendly content about both Iran and Saudi Arabia and at times might seem to express the viewpoint of a pan-Islamic Muslim or transnational capitalist both interested in stability and struggling against Americans. The present era engenders international united fronts against the United $nakes, against which there must be major political and economic gains before conditions will favor the advancement of revolution against neocolonialism or capitalism in general. Some others, talking about supposedly proletarian revolution in Muslim or Third World countries without resolutely opposing the Amerikans, are bourgeois stooges in one way or another. Or they have made themselves useful tools of imperialist “regime change,” or policies of maintaining simmering violence or weakening Third World countries, regardless of any Marxist or revolutionary rhetoric.
To the extent that it is possible to know anything of general applicability and importance about multiple countries without having set foot in any of them, this writer does claim to have such knowledge more correct than some of the things many are saying/suggesting, who are talking about Palestine. So, if the writing here seems prescient at times or seems to get things right unusually, that is the reason, not some special insight that millions of people outside Palestine couldn’t have, without claiming to be leaders there. The observations made here should be easily duplicated by somebody else. In any case, the onslaught here will persist until others publish more substantive documents in English either addressing the same issues or critiquing the line of thought here.
With regard to both Iran and Saudi Arabia in the Palestinian context, there were appearances in the media of a deterioration in the Hamas-Iranian relationship in 2015 and 2016. Alternatively, if the zero-sum view of Iranian/Saudi ties with other nations is wrong as it is to some extent, it is at least the case that Hamas’ ties with people in other Arab countries appeared to increase. People who are overly interested in the intentions, motivations and causes involved may pay less attention to how, regardless of cause, developments in Hamas’ relationships with non-Palestinian Arabs are related to the national reconciliation struggle in Palestine that some view as necessary for advancing the two-state solution. It is conceivable that some farsighted Iranians tolerated these developments, for that reason and despite concerns about pan-Arabism while there were still Arab alliances with the U.$. hegemon, even if the perceived situation and reasons stated publicly or not were different. Fatah, not just Hamas, has a relationship with Iranians, but it may be either that Arab “influence” (if it doesn’t lead to more conflict between Palestinians) can be allowed if it doesn’t take away from Iranian “influence,” or that Arab perceptions of a zero-sum situation with Iran may make some Iranian withdrawal from Palestinians advisable for the purpose of Palestinian unity. That may be the case even if the Iranians believe what they have said about the Iranian and Saudi pursuit of roles in the region as not being a zero-sum game. The fact that Fatah’s own relationship with Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries can be seen as less than perfect, making Iran’s flexibility in some areas easier to contemplate, is another consideration.
Relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia themselves took an apparent nose dive at the end of 2015. According to reports in the media, Iran and Saudi Arabia were turning their guns (figuratively, if not literally) toward each other and away from Israel well before then. Here again is a case where people should not overthink things or be distracted by rhetoric. Targeting or concentrating fire – military, intelligence etc. – on Israel may not always help advance the two-state solution. And constantly rejecting the two-state solution, which can be temporary as many Palestinians view it, may not advance the Palestinian cause. Maybe military operations have some inertia, and if the choice is between Israel and Saudi Arabia, both backed by the united $tates, turning the sights of the military, intelligence and diplomatic apparatuses away from Israel and toward Saudi Arabia may sometimes make sense from the point of view of any Iranian interest in the two-state solution, even just as a temporary step toward total liberation of the Palestinian nation’s entire territory. At the same time, any increased cooperation or coordination with the united $tates – which has significant contradictions with Saudi Arabia despite their alliance – by Iran or Saudi Arabia in any area, would be worrying from the point of view of the two-state solution, which the amerikans don’t really support.
Iranian media refers to Palestinian diplomats again on the amerikans’ hampering other countries’ two-state solution initiatives
It is in this context that the reader may be interested in a recent interview of the Palestinian ambassador to the UK by official Iranian news agency IRNA.(1) The transcript was published today. It is remarkable in a few ways. One has to do with the fact that anything that ambassador says that is public will be of interest to Britons and reflect diplomacy with the UK. The ambassador will be accountable for what ey says. Another is that the interview is an example of how Iran publicly and readily recognizes the State of Palestine and respects the Fatah-influenced PLO’s choice of diplomats for the State of Palestine, which is also relevant to the PA’s legitimacy despite separation of these institutions in both the abstract and the concrete. In terms of the interview’s content, the ambassador said, “The peace process has been totally stalled and we are stuck between the historically inevitable and the politically impossible.” That is not the same thing as saying the two-state solution is dead. “Stalled” is a word that may also be used with genuine socialist revolution in the present era.
The ambassador said there has been a stalemate since “the Camp David agreement.” This apparently and curiously referred to the accords of 1978, not the failed summit of 2000. The word “Oslo” isn’t in the IRNA transcript. Without naming the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian diplomat was talking with Iran about “the peace process” and its stalling. “The current stalemate is not helping because compulsive violence is becoming the name of the game again, with 50 years of occupation and 10 years of siege on Gaza.” The current stalemate with “the peace process” is not helping. That is what the Palestinian was telling Iran, a supporter of organized resistance and a critic of a so-called peace process confusingly associated with the amerikans; the amerikans only want what is best for their own interests regardless of violence ten thousand kilometers away.
The ambassador’s interview with IRNA shows signs of vestiges of old thinking about the two-state solution, that it must involve the united $tates “pushing” something. It would be more correct to say the united $tates must be resisted and that the world should proceed as though amerikkkans won’t succeed in pressuring their government to change its Middle East policy. If it does change, most of the pressure for it will come from the outside. Ambassador Manuel Hassassian said “it is so unfortunate that the third party which is the US is not pushing for a re-engagement.” However, openness toward greater Russian involvement was expressed. “We thought that the Russians influence could come back again to the scene as part and parcel of the quartet . . . .” Hassassian talked about the French initiative that involves the Arab Peace Initiative, which Iran supposedly opposes. “ . . . Americans and some of the Europeans are trying to minimize and devoid the actual content of that conference which if does not work out then we lose another opportunity for re-engagement in a peace process.” The ambassador goes on to say that the consequences of the amerikans’ efforts, if the amerikans are successful, is that “the instability and the insecurity in the Middle East will be sustained.” “The Palestinian issue” is described as being central to whether or not there will be stability in the region.
None of that is anything Palestinian diplomats hadn’t talked about in public before. Also, some parts, particularly those pertaining to the amerikans’ role in Middle East conflict, had appeared in Iranians’ own statements. The news is that here we have a Palestinian diplomat and the Iranian government openly talking together about how the Great Satan opposes the two-state solution. The rest of the interview deals with the “long process” of trying to use the International Criminal Court against I$rael, which involves recognition of existing Palestinian statehood, Iran’s support for the Palestinian nation’s “request” for independence, and the Balfour Declaration, which the now-unelected international figure Mahmoud Abbas has been asking Britain to make amends for. This is not Iran rejecting diplomacy in favor of some armed or non-violent uprising/resistance as if these things were mutually exclusive.
Hassassian said “we would like to see the rectification of this position by the UK to recognize the state of Palestine rather than celebrating the establishment of a regime that has been an occupying regime in the Middle East by denying the Palestinian right to self-determination.” In this way, Palestine suggested to the UK, which like almost all non-Muslim-majority countries in the world already recognizes Israel, that recognizing the State of Palestine would help to make up for Britain’s role in establishing the Israeli entity in Palestine.
As for what the interview with IRNA means practically speaking, many of those claiming to reject the two-state solution – temporary or not – from a militant or radical perspective were relying on Iranian support whether they knew it and said so or not. Aside from the fact that the Soviet Union was no longer a socialist country by the 1967 and 1973 wars, the Soviet Union no longer exists today despite some delusionally acting like it did or that it were still the 1970s. Even a still-socialist China was saying in the 1970s that the socialist camp basically no longer existed and that it was affecting class struggle and causing it to have an international form that some may have difficulty discerning as proletarian; with the united $tates’ now being the sole superpower, the situation is even worse now. What we have to deal with today are capitalist countries in various levels of accommodation with neocolonialism or ties (or conflict) with the united $nakes, with a diminished basis for a general struggle against equal imperialist countries rivaling each other. Despite sanctions and exploitation by other countries, Iran – which is not an imperialist country – has one of the largest economies in the world by GDP. It has been in conflict with the united $tates and has supported Palestinian liberation militarily; although, Iranian casualties in direct conflicts with Israel have not exceeded those of Arab countries that concluded peace agreements with Israel decades ago after fighting wars with it. So it is now Iran at the state level most visibly opposing the amerikan-I$raeli entity in Palestine. Yet, Iran is indicating in official media how it can get behind the two-state solution: that the united $tates opposes it. (At least, strong Iranian opposition to what Palestinian diplomats are doing in pursuit of a two-state outcome would not be viewed as friendly by those Palestinian diplomats whom they talk with so publicly.) Saudi Arabia meanwhile tries, perhaps more than some other countries do, to strike a balance between kissing amerikan ass and opposing I$rael.
Of course, the cynical will say Iran is just competing with Saudi Arabia or another Arab country to influence Palestinians. Several days ago, Iranian media published an article about a meeting with the Palestinian ambassador to Iran.(2) Hossein Amir-Abdollahian, the international affairs advisor to the Iranian parliament speaker said “the great gap in the Islamic world regarding support for the Palestinian cause is deplorable.” Amir-Abdollahian reportedly “condemned the Zionists’ misguided attempts to develop relations with Arab countries as source of damage to the region and the roots of the current turmoil.” This seems to refer to recent Arab overtures to Israel and Israel’s own overtures and siding with certain Arab countries. The language is interesting in seeming to suggest some other approach may be in Israel’s own interests. “Mr. Salah Sawawi for his part expressed gratitude for Iran’s lavish support for Palestinian people; ‘we see the Islamic Republic of Iran as a great country and a supporter and a patron and will never forget support of the people and the government for Palestinian issue; we also cherish the Leader of the Islamic Revolution, government, and the Parliament in not abandoning Palestinians in the Intifada as valuable and a blessing on us,’ he concluded.” What Amir-Abdollahian said, however, could be viewed as supporting the Arab Peace Initiative in its original form, in which normal relations with Israel are contingent on meeting and realizing certain conditions. Fulfilling that requirement is far off. Of I$raeli-Saudi relations, Ayatollah Khamenei months ago drew attention to the u.$. role.(3) The united $tates is in control.
It is possible that Israel and Arab countries can have overlapping or intersecting interests independently of the united $tates. A shift away from the united $tates, involving Israel and Arab countries, could be welcomed by an Iran that continues to view the united $tates as the greatest enemy. It is true that Iran has strongly criticized some Arab countries in the context of alleged increased relations with Israel.(4) Significant difficulties related to Iran have appeared in the media in relationships between Arab countries.(5) And, a week ago, IRNA published an article that was strongly critical of some Arab states in a way that has become typical.(6) The article supported “an independent Palestinian state in Quds” without precluding the two-state solution, though. Iranian Foreign Minister Deputy for Legal and International Affairs Abbas Araqchi said of the so-called 9/11 lawsuit law JASTA that not even the Saudi Arabia could trust the united $tates. “Speaking about Riyadh’s dispute with the United States on ‘Justice Against Sponsor of Terrorism Act (JASTA)’, he said Washington has showed that it is not trustable.” In addition, Iran this month expressed interest in building ties with Egypt(7) and a variety of other countries(8) that already have normal or improved relations with Israel. Many of those countries have been involved in supporting the two-state solution or have financial and economic interest in the resolution of conflicts in the Middle East that the united $tates generates, exacerbates and sustains for strategic reasons.
That should not be viewed one-sidedly either as just trying to increase Iranian influence without advancing the Palestinian cause, or as just trying to get other countries to sever ties with Israel. Convergence of economic interests in the midst of crisis is paving the way for the two-state solution. The approach of relying on a hegemonic power is not sustainable. Also unsustainable is the approach of expecting a few poor or crisis-ridden oppressed countries, that already have nonexistent or weak ties with Israel, to shoulder most of the burden of holding out for some outcome more radical than a temporary two-state stage with relative peace and sovereignty. The status quo and the amerikans who support it must be opposed without delay.
The Permanent Representative of Iran to the UN spoke last week in front of the united $tates and others at an open debate in the UN Security Council Chamber.(9) “Under current circumstances, as always in the past, the situation in Palestine requires urgent international attention and action. The illegal and brutal Israeli occupation continues and causes so much anguish to the Palestinian people and dangerously inflames tensions in the volatile situation in the region. The Israeli regime continues to breach international law, including humanitarian and human rights law and, by doing so, inflicts widespread human suffering to the civilians and deliberately destabilizes the situation, with far–reaching and serious consequences for peace and security in the Middle East and beyond.”(10) These crimes are also the crimes of the united $nakes, which only pretends to support peace in the Middle East. ◊
• “Sending the right signal: Abbas, BDS, and diplomacy,” 2016 September. https://github.com/pinotes/pinotes.github.io/blob/master/_posts/2016-09-29-news-Abbas-BDS-diplomacy.md
• “Oppose the United Snakes, truly unite for Palestine,” 2016 October. https://github.com/pinotes/pinotes.github.io/blob/master/_posts/2016-10-21-news-Unite-for-Palestine.md
• “Some others clueless while Palestinians continue to support diplomatic and political efforts,” 2016 October. https://github.com/pinotes/pinotes.github.io/blob/master/_posts/2016-10-27-news-An-Najah-poll.md
• “Two states on Palestinian turf: soccer games and economic-political realities,” 2016 July. https://github.com/pinotes/pinotes.github.io/blob/master/_posts/2016-07-27-news-two-state-solution-Iran.md
• “Zarif, Lavrov, al-Moallem meet in line with anti-terror strategy,” 2016 October 27. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82283764/
• “China ‘to hold drills in disputed South China Sea’,” 2016 October 27. http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2016/10/27/490893/China-Saudi-Arabia-antiterrorism-drills-Peoples-Liberation-Army-Daily “In a separate development, a Chinese military publication has said a small number of special forces from China and Saudi Arabia have conducted joint “anti-terrorism” drills, a first of their kind between the two countries.”
• “China, Palestine to promote traditional friendship,” 2016 September 23. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2016-09/23/c_135706710.htm “During the meeting, the visiting top Chinese legislator said that in January, Chinese President Xi Jinping made a strong appeal in a speech on activating the peace process and promoting reconstruction at the Arab League headquarters in Cairo.” “He reiterated that China firmly supports the just cause of the Palestinian people to restore their national rights and backs Palestine to join more international organizations.” “Expressing appreciation of China’s long-time support, Hamdallah agreed with President Xi that the Palestinian question should not be marginalized or forgotten. / He hoped China will make a bigger role in the Palestinian-Israeli issue, helping further promote the Palestinian issue in the international arena.”
• “Israeli forces abduct 52 Palestinians across occupied W Bank,” 2016 October 10. http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2016/10/10/488461/Palestine-Israel-West-Bank-alQuds-alAqsa-Intifada
• “UNESCO passes anti-Israel resolution despite Tel Aviv brickbats,” 2016 October 26. http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2016/10/26/490827/Palestine-UNESCO-Israel
• “Manila was wise to shift away from US: Analyst,” 2016 October 21. http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2016/10/21/490031/Philippines-China-US-Jones
• “Rivals, regional powers grow uneasy with Palestinian leader,” 2016 October 26. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-palestinians-leadership-idUSKCN12Q1C1 “Officials who have met him think he may act as a kingmaker, rather than a future Palestinian president, throwing his support behind another senior Fatah figure as leader.” “Yet the most popular Palestinian politician, according to opinion polls, remains Marwan Barghouti, a leader of the first and second uprisings against Israel who was convicted of murder by an Israeli court in 2004 and is serving five life sentences.”
1. “Regional crisis originated from Palestine issue, says Ambassador,” 2016 October 27. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82283714/
“Is the two-state solution dead?” 2016 September 3. http://www.presstv.ir/Detail/2016/09/03/482963/twostate-solution-Palestine-Israel “The Palestinian Ambassador to UK, Professor Manuel Hassassian, said ideally he would prefer a one-state solution but pragmatically and politically the two-state solution is the best option that the Palestinians could realistically achieve. Although, he said even that seems to be rather impossible under the current political climate.”
2. “Iranian support for Palestinians ‘unswerving’,” 2016 October 23. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120757/Iranian-support-for-Palestinians-unswerving
3. “Saudi-Israel relations, a stab in the Islamic Ummah’s back: Ayatollah Khamenei,” 2016 August 1. http://english.khamenei.ir/news/4046/Saudi-Israel-relations-a-stab-in-the-Islamic-Ummah-s-back-Ayatollah “The Leader of the Revolution then divulged in Saudi Arabia’s attempts, which are meant to normalize relations with the Zionist regime. He described this attempt as a stab in the Islamic Ummah’s back, saying “The move, by the Saudis, is an immense sin and treason, but the U.S. has a share in this major transgression, since the Saudi government obeys the U.S., is controlled by them, and looks up to their word of mouth.”
“Our problems with America are not solved by negotiations: Ayatollah Khamenei,” 2016 August 1. http://english.khamenei.ir/news/4052/Our-problems-with-America-are-not-solved-by-negotiations-Ayatollah “There is no doubt that what the Saudis have done – overt relations with the Zionist regime – is really a dagger that has been pushed into the body of the Islamic Ummah from behind. They have committed high treason. They have committed a sin. However, on this matter too, America’s hand is involved. Because the Saudi government follows America, because it is possessed by it, and because it obeys its orders, it has made this grave mistake. America is involved on this matter too.”
4. “Pro-Palestine entity calls for consensus to fight Israeli apartheid,” 2016 October 2. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82253537/ ““The approach by some governments to normalize relations with the occupying Zionists means that they are turning a blind eye to the Zionist regime’s continuous crimes against the Palestinian people and makes the Zionist ruder,” Qassemi added. / Qassemi urged the leaders of Muslim countries to remain vigilant and shoulder more responsibility towards the cause of the Palestinian people.”
“Jalali: Iran’s foreign policy crystal clear,” 2016 October 18. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82271940/ “He said that bolstering of relations with the Islamic countries mainly with the neighboring states is the top priority of the Islamic Republic of Iran and despite the bitter and negative treatment of some countries in the region, Iran never made any change in its approach.” “There is no doubt that the tough measures of the extremists groups have nothing to do with Islam but they misuse the name of Islam to justify their misdeeds through inhuman behavior to serve the interests of foreign powers and some very specific countries in the region, he said.”
“Amir Abdollahian: Iran willing to bolster friendly interactions,” 2016 October 23. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82277961/ “Amir Abdollahian criticized creation of divide in the Muslim World about Palestine and said that the Islamic world should take common stance on the Palestinian issue, because it is the most important issue for the Muslims. / He said that the Zionist regime efforts to form relations with some Arab-Islamic countries will be harmful for the region and Tel Aviv is the rootcause of insecurity in the region.”
5. “Longtime allies Egypt, Saudi Arabia in rare public row,” 2016 October 12. http://www.news24.com/Africa/News/longtime-allies-egypt-saudi-arabia-in-rare-public-row-20161012-3 “Saudi King Salman visited Cairo on a rare trip abroad in April, hailing Sisi and approving a slew of investment deals. / Even then, however, there were reports of Saudi frustration over Cairo’s reported reluctance to fully back Riyadh’s regional ambitions, in particular in its rivalry with Iran.” “Aramco’s surprise decision to suspend petroleum product exports to Egypt applies only to October, so far.”
6. “Murder of Syria civilians result of Takfiri ideology spread: Deputy FM,” 2016 October 20. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82273553/ “The deputy foreign minister urged the support by certain states for Daesh and al-Nusrah Front to be stopped and noted that raiding Yemen is going to bear no results but empowering the terrorist groups and intensifying the crisis there.” “Iran’s foreign ministry official also referred to the catastrophic situation faced by the Palestinians and said that the crisis in Palestine has no solution but the return of Palestinian refugees to their homeland and establishment of an independent Palestinian state in Quds. / Speaking about Riyadh’s dispute with the United States on ‘Justice Against Sponsor of Terrorism Act (JASTA)’, he said Washington has showed that it is not trustable.”
An example of how Iranians have discussed the two-state solution as being temporary and leading to a unified, unoccupied al-Quds in the future: “Netanyahu wants no-state solution for Palestine: Hamid Golpira,” 2013 August 5. https://web.archive.org/web/20150820022721/http://www.presstv.ir/detail/2013/08/05/317226/netanyahu-wants-nostate-solution/ ““The two-state solution, if it could happen in a proper way, could even be an acceptable thing for the people who want a one-state solution in the future. They could see it… as one step toward a one-state solution,” Golpira said.” “Golpira stated that things are not looking so great right at the moment, but “eventually it will be that East Jerusalem is the capital of Palestine.” He added, “And maybe soon all of Jerusalem will be one capital of the one united Palestine in a one state-solution, which is what some people are working for, to have a one-state solution through a referendum of all the people, including the diaspora of Palestinians. If they are allowed to return, then the Palestinians are… in the majority. Maybe that cannot happen really soon, but it could happen fairly soon, it could happen one day. There will be justice for Palestine in the future, if not in the near future… in the future it will happen.”” Golpira was repeatedly quoted on this in other Iranian articles since the interview on August 2, 2013, International Quds Day.
7. “Palestine ‘still critical issue’ in ME,” 2016 October 3. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120248/Palestine-still-critical-issue-in-ME “With the Arab Spring which toppled Mubarak’s autocratic rule in Egypt and election of Islamist candidate Mohammed Morsi to the presidency in 2012, Iran waged laudable efforts to break the ice in relations, with Mr. Ahmadinejad, then president visiting Cairo. The downing of the government by the army and arrest of many of Islamist Muslim Brothers cadres however turned the tide and Tehran was again to wait for a special moment to revive relations with a country viewed from Tehran the major Arab country of some prestige and one that once ruled the Arab hearts and minds.”
“Iran-Egypt cooperation to help alleviate sufferings of Muslim World,” 2016 October 3. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82254619/
8.“No precondition accepted in developing ties with Berlin,” 2016 October 1. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120160/No-precondition-accepted-in-developing-ties-with-Berlin
“Iran-Germany trade meeting opens in Tehran,” 2016 October 3. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82253907/
“Nuclear deal led Europe to real image about Iran: Araqchi,” 2016 October 27. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82283810/ “Touching upon the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), he said that Europe is changing its stance toward Iran and that a new chapter of cooperation is taking shape between the Islamic Republic of Iran and Europe.”
“Zarif, ex-Swedish FM confer in Tehran,” 2016 October 3. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82254211/ “During the meeting, the two sides discussed the Palestine issue, destructive role of Zionist regime in the region as well as the implementation of the nuclear deal also known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) and also explored ways of fostering Iran and European Union (EU) relations.”
“Iran to weld Europe-Asia railway axis,” 2016 October 23. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120741/Iran-to-weld-Europe-Asia-railway-axis
“Larijani: US not determined to annihilate terrorism,” 2016 October 2. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82253292/ “Belgian official, for his part, said that Belgian parliament like Iran believes that regional issues should be solved through diplomatic channels.” “Belgian parliament and government is keen on promoting communications in political, economic, cultural and parliamentary spheres with Iran as a major and historic country in the region and world.” “The two countries’ consultation in regional issues is of high importance and will contribute to regional peace and stability, he said.”
“Rafsanjani: Fabricated Zionist regime rootcause of terrorism in Mideast,” 2016 October 24. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82279415/ “Chairman of the Expediency Council Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani said on Monday that the fabricated Zionist regime is the rootcause of terrorism in the Middle East region orchestrated by western powers.” “Rafsanjani made the remarks in a meeting with visiting Austrian parliament vice-speaker Karlheinz Kopf.”
“Iran-Austria coop. to help reduce tensions in region,” 2016 October 24. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120755/Iran-Austria-coop-to-help-reduce-tensions-in-region
“Vaezi: Iran, Luxembourg to set up committee to regulate economic ties,” 2016 October 18. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82271905/
“Iranian, Russian provinces to expand economic ties,” 2016 October 19. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82273215/
“Iran-Malaysia ties eyeing considerable boosting,” 2016 October 20. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120587/Iran-Malaysia-ties-eyeing-considerable-boosting
“Iran-ASEAN ties flourishing,” 2016 October 19. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120583/Iran-ASEAN-ties-flourishing
“Rouhani: Asia’s power dependent on self-confidence, convergence (UPDATED),” 2016 October 10. http://www.irna.ir/en/News/82262972/
9. “Despite other Middle East crises, intensifying Israeli-Palestinian conflict must not be ignored, delegates tell Security Council during day-long Debate,” 2016 October 19. https://www.un.org/press/en/2016/sc12558.doc.htm
“Statement by Ambassador Dr. Riyad Mansour before the United Nations Security Council, Open Debate on the Situation in the Middle East, including the Palestine Question, New York, 19 October 2016,” 2016 October 19. http://palestineun.org/statement-by-ambassador-dr-riyad-mansour-before-the-united-nations-security-council-open-debate-on-the-situation-in-the-middle-east-including-the-palestine-question-new-york-19-october-2016/
“Open Debate on the Situation in the Middle East, including the Palestinian Question,” 2016 October 19. https://holyseemission.org/contents//statements/5807ed03a2239.php “My delegation would like to underline once again that, for the Holy See, the two-State solution holds the best promise.” “A unity government in the West Bank and Gaza is essential to advancing the negotiations and to bringing peace and prosperity to its people, so heavily dependent on international aid for basic needs.”
Compare with: “Remarks at a UN Security Council Open Debate on the Situation in the Middle East,” 2016 October 19. http://usun.state.gov/remarks/7497 “Hamas is a terrorist organization.”
10. “Situation in Palestine requires urgent intl. attention,” 2016 October 20. http://en.mehrnews.com/news/120673/Situation-in-Palestine-requires-urgent-intl-attention